The Islamic calendar

I've tried to bring you closer to the Islamic calendar and listed you the months and the holidays.

  1. The calculation
  2. The months
    1. Muharram
    2. Safar
    3. Rabī' al-awwal
    4. Rabī'ath-thānī
    5. Jumādā l-ūlā
    6. Jumādā th-thāniya
    7. Radschab
    8. Sha'ban
    9. Ramadan
    10. Shawwal
    11. Dhu l-qa'da
    12. Dhū l-Hijja

Did you know that the Muslims have their own calendar that is directed to the moon? That’s why it’s called the lunar calendar.

The calendar that is currently the most used in the world, which goes from January to December, is completely directed to the sun. That’s why it’s called solar calendar.

The solar calendar does not consider the moon and the lunar calendar does not take the sun into account.

In this article, I would like to go into the Islamic calendar and give you a few sentences about each month …

The calculation

The Islamic calendar can not be calculated and is dependent on a sighting. This is also one of the most difficult issues currently in the Islamic world.

The modern Muslims have found a calculation, which can be used to calculate the months, but can always miss one or two days. Since God in the Qur’an and the Prophet in his hadiths command to sight and track the moon, the mathematical calculation can not be applied to worship.

So if you are present during this month, you should fast.

Al-Baqara 2:18

If you see him (the Hilal * of the month of Ramadan), then fast, and when you see him again (the Hilal * of the month Shawwal), then finish your fasting, and if his sighting is not possible, then complete the month to 30 ,

Bukhari, hadith no. 1900

Unfortunately, many Muslims defy these guidelines and make their services according to mathematically calculated calendars. As a result, many Muslims, for example, are not fasting, even though the month of fasting has arrived, or fasting, even though Ramadan is over, or celebrating Bayram even though they are still in Ramadan. All of these cases are unacceptable in Islam and can not be tolerated under any circumstances.

The months

Just as in the solar calendar, there are also 12 months in the Islamic lunar calendar. Some months of it are called the haram months, where certain practices such as war are forbidden.

Since the Muslim calendar is a lunar calendar, the beginning of the month shifts eleven days a year. Over the years, the month therefore goes through all four seasons.


Muharram is the first month in the Islamic calendar. The special day of this month is the 10th Muhamrram. This day is called Ashura. It is known among the Muslims as the day when the flood of Noah’s time has ended and Noah returned to land. It’s also a Haram month.


There are no blessed days this month. Some people mistakenly believe that this is a bad month. This belief is un-Islamic. There is no month of misery in Islam.

Rabī’ al-awwal

Is the third month in which the Prophet Muhammad (sav) was born. That’s why the Muslims gather in the mosque on the 12th of the month.

It is erroneously assumed that the day of the Prophet’s birthday is celebrated on this day and therefore the Muslims are heavily criticized, especially by the Salafist scene. In truth, however, the Prophet’s birthday is only used as an opportunity to gather Muslims in the mosque.


This month is like the month of Safar. There are no blessed days but no bad days.

Jumādā l-ūlā

This month also contains no blessed days. On the 22nd of this month the camel battle took place, which is in the end the base of the Shiite law school.

Jumādā th-thāniya

There are no blessed days this month and no bad days.

This month, is the month of the blessed three months in Islam. That is why many Muslims are preparing for fasting.


Radschab is the first month of the three blessed months of Islam and also a month of Haram. You can start fasting this month.

On the first Friday night of Radschab, Muslims celebrate Lailat ar-raghā’ib. It is believed that prayers are answered that night, and it was already established in the Ottoman Empire that people should gather in the mosque that night and pray together.

On the 27th of this month the Prophet Muhammad (sav) had his heaven journey (al-Isra) and this is also taken as a reason to gather the Muslims in the mosque.


This month is the second between the three blessed months and has special significance for Muslims since it is the month of Ramadan.

The Muslims celebrate Lailat al-Barā’a on the night of the 14th and 15th.

Verily Allah descends from the Sha’ban on the fifteenth night and forgives each of His creatures except one of the Mushik (Polotheists) and the Muschaḥin (Quarrelsome).

Reported by ibn Majah / 1390


Ramadan may well be the best known month in Islam. It is a duty for every Muslim from the 1st to the last day of Ramadan to fast.

The month of Ramazan is that in which the Quran was revealed, a guidance to men and clear proofs of the guidance and the distinction; therefore whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast therein, and whoever is sick or upon a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire for you difficulty, and (He desires) that you should complete the number and that you should exalt the greatness of Allah for His having guided you and that you may give thanks.

Quran: Sura 2, verse 185

In this month is also the Lailat al-Qadr. Lailat al-Qadr describes a night in Ramadan, which has the highest position in Islam and in which all prayers are answered.

Surely We revealed it on the grand night. And what will make you comprehend what the grand night. The grand night is better than a thousand months. The angels and Gibreel descend in it by the permission of their Lord for every affair, Peace! it is till the break of the morning.

Sura 97, verses 1-5

Abu Hurayra (may Allaah be pleased with him) said that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him salvation) said, “He who prays out of faith and sincerity on the Night of Providence (Laylat al-Qadr), whose previous sins become forgiven. ”

Bukhari and Muslim

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) said that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him salvation) also said, “Look for it in the last ten days on odd nights.”

Bukhari and Muslim


This month begins with the so-called sugar festival (‘Īdu l-Fitr). After’Īdu l-Fitr you have the opportunity to fast a few more days to say goodbye to Ramadan.

Dhu l-qa’da

Dhu l-qa’da is the penultimate month in the Islamic calendar and does not include Blessed Days. Again, there are no bad days.

Dhū l-Hijja

Dhū l-Hijja is the last month and also the month of Hajj (pilgrimage). The Hajj is performed from the 8th to the 13th Dhū l-Hijja.

This month is also the Eid ul-Adha, which is celebrated on the 10th Dhū l-Hijja.


calendar Fast Friday Hajj Islam Life Ramadan religion

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